This tutorial is made to show you the step-by-step installation of a Debian server in console mode.
The ISO used is debian-8.8.0-amd64-netinst.iso downloadable on this page
In bold are registered the choices operated in the screenshots, or the informations provided for the example. You need to adapt these datas according to your own context, your own information.
1/ Start your server by booting on the ISO, select the type of installation : Install (installation in console mode)
2/ Select the language : French
3/ Select the country : France
4/ Select the keyboard : French
5/ Beginning of the installation
6/ In the context of this tutorial, the IP address is auto-assigned (a DHCP server presence in the network)
In case your server does not have a DHCP server to attribute him an IP address, you have to manually inform the IP configuration of your server (IP – Mask – bridge – DNS)
7/ Give your server’s name : jn-community
8/ Give your domain’s name : jaguar-network.com
9/ Enter the password root. This password must be complex because the root account has complete power over your server. It is an important points in terms of security. You will be asked to enter the password twice in a row
10/ Give a user’s name : Support. This is a display name. This user will allow you to connect to your server without needing the administrators’ rights. On grounds of security, it is indeed impossible to directly connect as root on your server
11/ Give an identifier for this user. By default, the user takes the user’s name given at the previous step, in lowercase : support
12/ Enter the password for this user. Even though Linux does not impose specific security criterias, it is still advised to choose a complex password mixing capital letters, lowercases, numbers and special characters. You will be asked to enter this password twice in a row
13/ This step is the only one that can be a bit complicated: the disk partition. In most cases, you will have to use the whole disk, this tutorial will use this assumption. In our example, only one hard disk is present in the virtual server, but in order to illustrate a personalized partition, the partition /home is separated. You can see that 5,6 Go were allocated to the disk root (/), 712 Mo to swap and 15,1Go to the partition where the users’ folders (/home) will be. It is not unusual to see a partition devoted to /var in the case of a web server because it will contain the site content, by default /var/www/html in the case of a standard Apache server.
14/ The installation carries on
15/ One of the greatest strengths of Debian is its ability to install packages (see the command apt in the lexicon) by downloading them from remote mirrors. Select the nearest country from your server. In this case, France. The following screen will propose you the list of all the available mirrors, by default ftp.fr.debian.org
16/ If your server needs a proxy use, you can put the informations in the following screen so your server could get the packages necessary for its installation back.
17/ The installation continues by downloading the different needed packages. The installation process is directly linked to the internet connection flow rate used by your server.
18/ You can decide whether or not to participate in a statistical review about the packages use.
19/ Once the basic system installed, you also can add additional software. In this case, only a SSH server was selected (essential to remotely administrate your server from your SSH client, like Putty on Windows or Terminal, native client on MacOS)
20/ The installation goes on
21/ You could install the GRUB starting program on the boot sector of your disk. In this case, Debian is the only OS installed on the server, so GRUB was installed on the boot sector of the only hard disk of the server for a default start on Debian.
22/ The installation is complete !
23/ When the server restarts, many informations appear on the screen giving information about the server’s state durant the start, till the connection invitation
24/ For security reasons, it is impossible to directly connect as root. You thus have to connect with the user you created (in this case, it is the support user) to give yourself the administrators’ rights
25/ A user’s rights are limited. For instance, the command ifconfig, which allows to get IP information from your server, is not authorized as a user, but has to be root (in this case, we directly switched to root to illustrate the tutorial with the command su, for super user, but it is advised to only use sudo, super user do, followed by the command to execute, in order to keep on being connected as a standard user)
26/ These restrictions can also be found when you connect in SSH. After checking how well your server responds to ping, you can try to connect as root (if you have correctly installed your server, it should not work) then as a user